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Dogs + Medical Conditions

  • Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease caused by the soil fungus Coccidioides immitis. The early signs of coccidioidomycosis include fever, lethargy, lack of appetite, coughing, and joint pain.

  • Colitis simply refers to inflammation of the large intestine or colon. Signs include frequent, small volumes of semi-formed to liquid feces, straining, and small amounts of bright red blood. The causes of colitis include stress, infections, and parasites, trauma, allergic colitis, and primary inflammatory bowel disease. The diagnosis of colitis is based on your pet's clinical signs and history, microscopic evaluation of the feces, rectal examination, cytology, and blood tests. The specific cause of colitis will dictate the appropriate treatment. For most dogs diagnosed with colitis, the prognosis is excellent for a speedy recovery.

  • Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) is a genetic mutation affecting many breeds that causes developmental defects in the eye that can lead to vision deficits or blindness. This defect can be diagnosed by a veterinary ophthalmologist between 6 and 8 weeks of age by visualizing spots of choroidal hypoplasia or a colobomas . It can be associated with microphthalmia or enophthalmia. It can lead to retinal detachment and blindness. Although laser repair of partial retinal detachments can be attempted if detected in early stages, there is generally no treatment for CEA. Vision varies depending on the extent of the lesions and some dogs will become blind. Prevention requires not breeding animals that carry the mutation and this can be achieved through genetic testing of breeding dogs.

  • Color dilution alopecia is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects dogs with dilute-colored coats causing hair loss. Some dogs will also be affected by secondary bacterial infections so topical management and pruritus treatments may be needed to improve the dog's comfort. Affected dogs and their relatives should not be bred.

  • Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a term that refers to the heart's inability to pump adequate blood to the body. There are many causes of CHF in dogs. The two most common causes are mitral valve insufficiency (MVI), or a leaky mitral valve, the valve between the left atrium and the let ventricle and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

  • The conjunctiva is the lining tissue that covers the globe of the eye and lines the eyelids and the third eyelid. Conjunctivitis refers to inflammation of this tissue. The most common clinical signs of conjunctivitis include discharge from the eyes, squinting or excessive blinking, and redness or swelling around the eyes. Conjunctivitis often involves both eyes, but only one eye may be affected in certain conditions. The most common causes of conjunctivitis include bacterial and viral infections, allergies, hereditary conditions, and tumors. The main goal of diagnosis is to determine if the conjunctivitis is a primary or secondary problem, if there is additional disease or damage to the eye, if the condition is allergic, or if it involves the sclera. In order to differentiate many of these conditions, a complete and detailed ophthalmic examination must be performed. Treatment is directed at the specific cause and may include both topical and oral medications. Most dogs have an excellent prognosis in most cases of conjunctivitis.

  • Constipation is infrequent or difficult passage of stool or feces and is typically a temporary condition. Though there are many causes of constipation in dogs, most cases are caused by ingestion of irritating or indigestible substances. Constipation is usually diagnosed through a physical examination and medical history. A rectal exam to rule out rectal strictures, tumors, foreign bodies, or other abnormalities may be done. Abdominal radiographs, blood tests, and urinalysis are valuable for a full diagnosis and development of a treatment plan. Biopsies may also be recommended if a rectal mass or stricture is suspected. Most cases of constipation are relatively easy to treat through the use of manual removal, enemas, and medications. The prognosis for constipation is determined by the exact cause.

  • Coonhound paralysis describes a sudden inflammation of multiple nerve roots and peripheral nerves in dogs, and occasionally cats. It can be caused by an immune reaction to raccoon saliva. However, it can also occur in dogs who have not encountered a raccoon. In this case it is called “acute idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis” and its cause is often unknown. Dogs with coonhound paralysis start out with a stiff-legged gait that rapidly progresses to paralysis of all four legs. Severely affected dogs may need to be treated in a hospital setting but most dogs are treated at home once their diagnosis is confirmed and they are stable. The majority of dogs recover fully from coonhound paralysis.

  • Corkscrew tail, also known as screw tail or ingrown tail, is a vertebral malformation that commonly occurs in certain dog breeds. Corkscrew tail is commonly observed in English Bulldogs, Pugs, Boston Terriers, and French Bulldogs, although it may also occur in other breeds. Corkscrew tail is an inherited condition. There is nothing that you can do to prevent your dog from developing corkscrew tail, but there are measures breeders can take to reduce the incidence of corkscrew tail in their litters.

  • Corneal dystrophy is a term used to describe several conditions that occur in dogs and cause the corneas to become opaque. There are three major categories of corneal dystrophy: epithelial, stromal, and endothelial. Each is named by the anatomic location of the abnormal tissue and opacity.