Veterinarians routinely recommend certain vaccines for all dogs(called core vaccines) whereas others are used more selectively according to the dog's environment and lifestyle. Vaccines work by stimulating the body's immune system to recognize and fight a particular microorganism such as a virus, bacteria, or other infectious organisms. Depending on the disease, the vaccine will help the body prevent infection or lessen the severity of infection and promote rapid recovery. Vaccination will protect the vast majority of dogs but under some circumstances, vaccine breakdowns may occur.
A zoonosis is a disease or infection that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Although dogs only pose a mild risk of causing disease in humans, those with immunosuppressive conditions such as HIV or those receiving chemotherapy will be at higher risk of becoming ill from these infections. The most common and significant infections that humans can get from their pet dogs include rabies, leptospirosis, ringworm, and gastrointestinal illness such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. Hygiene plays an important role in preventing the spread of these diseases, as well as preventive medicine for your dog, including regular deworming and external parasite preventives.